The Greek Verb


  1. Verb
    1. Definition: action or state of being
    2. Characteristics
      1. Tense (Time and Kind of action
        (e.g. Past, Punctilliar )) (Kind (Aktionsart) is most important)
        (Linear _________ / Perfective ._______ / Undefined . / Iterative …)

        1. Present: progressive action right now. ( _____ )
          1. Descriptive (what is actually taking place now) __↓___
          2. Durative (started in past but continues now) __→___
          3. Iterative (…)
          4. Tendential →.
          5. Gnomic: Universal Truth ↔
          6. Historical .
          7. Futuristic (Confident assertions about the future as if they are already happening now)
          8. Aoristic .
          9. Perfective (Present reality of something that came into being in the
            past) .____→
        2. Imperfect
          1. Descriptive__↓___
          2. Durative __→___
          3. Iterative (…)
          4. Tendential→___ Something Attempted but not completed.
          5. Voluntative (Present wish or desire) _ _ _ _
          6. Inceptive ↓._______
        3. Future: (tense formative σ)
          1. Predictive
          2. Progressive
          3. Imperative (Command)
          4. Deliberative (Questions)
          5. Gnomic (universal truth)
        4. Aorist
          1. Constative ↓.
          2. Ingressive →.
          3. Culminative .↓←
          4. Gnomic (universal truth)
          5. Epistolary (writer takes the viewpoint of the reader.)
          6. Dramatic (present reality with certainty of a past event)
          7. Futuristic (pictures an event which is so certain to happen it is described as complete.
        5. Perfect
          1. Intensive . _↓_↓ _↓
          2. Consummative .
          3. Iterative (…)
          4. Dramatic (brings a past event vividly into the present)
          5. Gnomic
          6. Aoristic .
        6. Pluperfect ._______|
          1. Intensive .___↓_____
          2. Consummative .
      2. Voice: relationship of the subject to action (who’s acting on whom)
        1. Active: subject is acting
        2. Middle: Subject is acting with reference to
          on, for or
          by self.
        3. Passive: subject is being acted upon
      3. Mood (mode): How Real is the Action?
        1. Indicative: confirms the reality of the action from the viewpoint of the
          speaker
          .
        2. Subjunctive: objectively possible
          1. Independent Clauses
            1. Hortatory: first person plural urging others to join. “Let us…”
            2. Prohibition: used with μή stops an action from starting.
            3. Deliberative (questions)
            4. Emphatic Negation uses οὐ̓ μη
          2. Subordinate Clauses
            1. Purpose Clauses (uses ἵνα ὅπως / μή ἵνα – μή ὅπως μήποτε,
              μή πως) indicates purpose of the main verb.
            2. Conditional Clauses (uses ἐάν, ἄν in the protasis of a third
              class condition to express probable future condition.)
            3. Result Clauses Indicates what has resulted from the action of the
              main verb. ( ἵνα )
            4. Relative Clauses – relative pronoun plus ἄν or ἐάν.
            5. Comparative Clauses
            6. Indefinite Local Clauses where action is expected in the future.
            7. Temporal Clauses
            8. Concessive Clauses
            9. Substantival Clauses (as Subject, Predicate Nominative, Object, Appositive)
        3. Optative: subjectively possible.
          1. Independent Clauses
            1. Voluntative (expresses wish or prayer)
            2. Potential / Futuristic (Used with ἄν)/li>
            3. Deliberative (rhetorical question)
          2. Dependant Clauses
            1. only appears in conditional clauses in the NT.
            2. Uses εἰ with the optative in the protasis, ἄν with the optative in apodosis.
        4. Imperative
          1. Independent Clauses
            1. Command
            2. Prohibition
            3. Entreaty
            4. Permission
            5. Condition
            6. Concession
          2. Dependant Clauses: rare use and occurs only in relative clauses.
      4. Person
      5. Number
    3. Character (Kinds) of Verbs
      1. Finite: limited to a subject
      2. Infinite:
      3. Transitive: incomplete predication (needs an object to make meaning clear)
      4. Intransitive: complete predication (make sense without an object)
      5. Linking: links subject to predicate. (I am…)
    4. Participle- A Verbal Adjective
      1. Attributive
      2. Predicative
      3. Substantival
      4. adverbial
        1. Temporal = Time
        2. Telic = purpose
        3. Causal
        4. Conditional = Protasis
        5. Concessive = unfavorable circumstance despite the verb’s action.
        6. Instrumental
        7. Modal = Manner in which the verb’s action takes place (he walked away being sad)
        8. Complementary = Completes the idea of the main verb
        9. Circumstantial = communicates an action which accompanies the action of the main verb.
        10. Imperatival participle = used like a finite verb in the imperative
      5. Verbal the participle is used as a verb.