The Greek Substantive

  1. Substantive
    1. Kinds
      1. Noun

        1. Definition: Appellation (NAMES a person place or thing)
        2. Function: Expressed in the cases.
      2. Pronoun

        1. Definition: Another word used in place of a noun.
        2. Classes of Pronouns (Vaughan & Gideon p12)

  1. Personal

  2. Relative
  3. Demonstrative
  4. Intensive

  5. Possessive
  6. Reflexive
  7. Reciprocal
  8. Interrogative
  9. Distributive
  10. Indefinite
  11. Alternative
  12. Negative.

  1. Adjective

    1. Definition: Modifies or defines a noun.
      1. Answers the questions “which? What kind? How many?
      2. Agree in Gender, Number and Case with the words they modify.
    2. Function: (Agrees in Gender, number and Case to the Noun.)
      1. Attributive: modifies a noun directly by giving a meaning to the

        1. An article (usually) comes before the adjective.
        2. EXAMPLE (o` avgaqoj a;nqropoj) or (o` a;nqropoj avgaqoj) “the good man”
        3. First Attributive Article + Adjective + Noun

        4. Second Attributive article+noun+article+adjective

        5. Third attributive noun+article+adjective (NTA)

        6. Anarthrous Adjective+Noun (AN)

        7. Attributive Noun+Adjective (NA)

      2. Predicate: makes an assertion (claim) about the noun

        1. An article comes before the noun. (or no article)1
        2. EXAMPLE: (avgaqoj o` a;nqropoj) or (o` a;nqropoj avgaqoj) “the man IS good”
        3. First Predicate: Adjective+article+Noun (ATN)

        4. Second Predicate: article+noun+adjective (TNA)

      3. Substantive (nominative) use = the adjective takes the place of
        a noun.

        1. The adjective stands alone without an agreeing noun (Gender, number, case)
        2. EXAMPLE: o` avgaqoj OR avgaqoj= “The good man”
      4. Adverbial: Modifies a verb instead of a noun.
  2. Article (“the”)

    1. Distinguishes persons or things from all others. (“this is the chair”)
    2. Indicates the substantive is Monadic (the only one- e.g. “The God”)
    3. Denotes previous reference
    4. Distinguishes quality from one to another.
    5. Calls special attention to a proper name (“The George Washington”)
    6. Distinguish one class or group from another.
    7. Granville sharp’s rule “if two substantives
      are connected by kai, and both have the article, they refer to different persons or
      things; if the first has an article and the second does not the second refers to the
      same person or thing as the first.” (Brooks & Winbery p 76)
    8. To express the idea of a pronoun.
    9. To distinguish subject nominative from predicate nominative in a sentence with a
      linking verb.
    10. To indicate that a nominative is being used as a vocative.
    11. To indicate grammatical relationships.
    12. To replace a noun
  1. Can be used (actually not used) to indicate “character” thus John 1:1 indicates that the
    nature of “the word” is the same as Theos (while still being distinct.)
    1. Prepositions: See
      information under I.F.

  1. Characteristics of Substantives: Gender, Number, Case.
    1. Gender (Masculine, Feminine, Neuter) More a matter of grammar than sex.
    2. Number (one or more (Plural))
    3. Case: Defines its relationship to verb and other elements in
      A substantive in any case
      may stand as an explanatory equivalent with another word in the same case, this is
      called APPOSITION. “Paul is the painter.” has “Paul” and “Painter”
      in apposition.

      1. Nominative (designation the word or words by which something is called and

        1. Subject Nominative: subject of a finite verb.
        2. Predicate Nominative: object of a linking verb (verbs of
        3. Nominative of Appellation: a nameyou call me
        4. Independent Nominative (Nominative Absolute, Hanging)
          1. A self sufficient word
          2. (“the overcomer”) overcomer is a noun with no other relationships.
      2. Genitive (describes)
        1. Genitive of Description (Attributive Genitive) “of” /
        2. Genitive of Possession (shows ownership “belonging to”)
        3. Genitive of Relationship (marital, genital, social relationship)
        4. Adverbial Genitive (modifies a verb)
          1. of time
          2. of measure
          3. of place
          4. of reference
        5. Genitive with Nouns of Action (a noun that carries an sense of action

          1. Subjective Genitive (produces the nouns action)
          2. Objective Genitive (receives the nouns action)
        6. Genitive of Apposition (explanatory equivalent – same as the word it
        7. Genitive Absolute (noun or pronoun) with a participle and
          1. no grammatical relationship to the main clause.
          2. Produces the action expressed by the participle, but is
            different from the subject.
        8. Genitive of Advantage (indicates the thing something is done for) “for
          the joy set before him…”
        9. Genitive of Association (used with meta.).
        10. Genitive of Attendant Circumstances (emotional reaction accompanying the
        11. Genitive of Oaths (employs kata,)
        12. Genitive of Root Idea or Genitive of Direct Object (functions as the D.O.
          of verb.)
      3. Ablative (separates) “from”
        1. Ablative of Separation (that from which X is separated).
        2. Ablative of Source (defines the source of what it modifies)
        3. Ablative of Agency (indicates person performing action of the passive verb)
        4. Ablative of Means (indicates the means used to produce verbs action.)
        5. Ablative of Comparison (basis of a comparison)
        6. Ablative of Cause (indicates reason for action)
        7. Ablative of Rank (with preposition πρό)
        8. Ablative of Opposition (separation – hostility)
        9. Ablative of Purpose (always expressed in terms of removing something)
        10. Ablative of Exchange (avnti,)
        11. Partitive Ablative (indicates a part of the whole) “1/3 from the bunch”
      4. Dative “to / for” (expresses Personal interest – advantage
        or disadvantage)

        1. Dative of Indirect Object (to / for whom something is done)
        2. Dative of Advantage and Dative of Disadvantage (indicates person who
          benefits or suffers from the action.)
        3. Dative of possession (ownership)
        4. Dative of Reference or Dative of Respect (with reference to, concerning,
        5. Dative of Root Idea or Dative of Direct Object (functions as D.O. Of the
      5. Locative “in” (location)
        1. Locative of Place
        2. Locative of Time (emphasis on Chronology)
        3. Locative of sphere (figuratively places locative in relation to other
      6. Instrumental “By” or “with” (expresses means or instrument)
        1. Instrumental of Means (impersonal means “by means of”)
        2. Instrumental of Cause (what caused the action)
        3. Instrumental Of Manner (How action is carried out)
        4. Instrumental of Measure (indicates distance -real or imagined, spacial or
        5. Instrumental of Association (takes part in the action of the verb)
        6. Instrumental of Agency (middle or passive voice verb & noun expresses
          personal agency)
      7. Accusative (limits) (direct Object)

        1. Accusative of Direct Object (receives the action of a transitive verb)
        2. Cognate Accusative (Contains same root word or idea of the verb)
        3. Double Accusative (two accusatives being the direct objects “teach YOU all
        4. Adverbial Accusative (modifies verb and is NOT a direct object of it)
          1. Of measure (The extent of the verb’s action)
          2. Of manner (How the action of the verb takes place)
          3. Of reference (what does the verb relate to?)
          4. Of termination
        5. Accusative with Oaths (uses “by” the one swore by)
        6. Accusative Absolute (is the object of an accusative participle and
          unrelated to the subject of the main clause)
        7. Accusative of Purpose (what’s the aim of the verb?)
        8. Accusative of Result (what happens as a result of the verb?) (uses eivj)
        9. Accusative of Cause (reason for the action)
        10. Accusative of Possession (uses kata,)
        11. Accusative of Comparison
        12. Accusative of Relationship (varied meanings according to preposition)
        13. Predicate accusative (follows “to be” – may be one of a double accusative)
          (uses eivj)
      8. Vocative
        1. Does not interact with other elements in a sentence.
        2. Indicates the person or thing being addressed.
1Vaughan p13